[TUHS] Happy birthday, Dennis Ritchie!

Larry McVoy lm at mcvoy.com
Sun Sep 10 01:41:51 AEST 2017

On Sat, Sep 09, 2017 at 03:13:30PM +1000, Dave Horsfall wrote:
> On Fri, 8 Sep 2017, William Pechter wrote:
> >Perhaps the Prime OS or perhaps Domain OS from Apollo would have been the
> >workstation of the tech world.
> I almost worked for Pr1me once (I worked next door to them in North Sydney);
> what stopped me was their notion that "1" was a prime number (yes, I'm a
> mathematician)...
> >Apollo had a lead on Sun back in the day.
> I used to work for Sun, and we hated Apollo :-)

Mr Yacc might like this story.

Before I worked for Sun I worked for Lachman (porting Unix to the ETA-10)
and the dev environment there was apollos served by a Sun 3/280 file

I was fresh out of school, interviewed with Lachman for this job, they
sort of let me believe I'd be doing the VM system for this weird ass
machine that was basically a cluster with a huge (at the time) 2GB
"shared" memory that was bcopy only.  Seemed like a fun project.

I got there and they said "Um, you know, we have someone with more
than zero years of experience working on the VM system.  How about you
port all the commands?"  Crushed me was like "Really?" They said "Really".

Sigh, whatever.  So what I quickly learned was weird about this machine
was that native pointers pointed at bits.  The compiler writers were all
like "fuck that, we point at bytes" but they had to have a way to get to
real pointers so they decided that if you did 

	char	*p = &whatever;
	int	i = (int)p;

the assignment of a pointer into an int did the shift to point at the first
bit of that byte, and the other way shifted the other way.  Got it?  Ints
held "real" pointers and pointers held byte aligned pointers.  It was weird,

The unfortunate side effect is that 

	char	*p = malloc(10);

caused a shift if you didn't include malloc.h.  Because the compiler thought
malloc was returning a bit pointer so it "kindly" did the shift for us.

This quickly became a pattern.  Here is what I did:

First, and this is the apollo part, I ported the cross compiler from the
apollo environment to SunOS.  Because compiling on the file server was
faster in two ways: (a) local file system instead of NFS and (b) the Sun
was way way faster than those stupid apollo machines.  And the Sun was
real Unix.  The port caused all sorts of fuss because I wasn't part of
the compiler team, I had to write a tool that diffed the binaries produced
by the Sun with the ones produced by the apollos to show that the only
difference was in the a.out header that had a timestamp or something.

Second, and this is the part that Steve might like, I hacked lint suck
that when it complained about type mismatches it wandered around until
it got to the base types and printed out

	type mismatch: "INT" vs "POINTER"

which wasn't that easy, I didn't really understand the guts of lint.
I think those changes did wind their way back into Sys V lint somehow,
I had nothing to do with it, maybe someone from Lachman fed them back
or maybe the Sys V people redid them on their own.

OK, so now I lint all of /usr/src/cmd and I wrote an awk script (perl
wasn't around yet and awk worked fine) that looked for any int/pointer
mismatch, edited the file, and included every header I could think of
that declared some library function that returned a pointer, string.h,
malloc.h, etc.  I iterated a few times (this was an overnight thing,
I'd come in in the morning and see that I forgot some more, add them
to the list, restart the script).

Finally I get a clean lint run and I start up a compile run, fix up
a few remaining things (there were surprisingly few, it was an easy
port) and I've got a built /usr/src/cmd installed on piper1, my
test machine.  I go to my boss and say "I'm done".  Note that all of
this stuff, getting onboarded, porting the compiler, wacking lint,
linting, compiling, took about 3 weeks.  I was a busy little beaver :)

My boss goes "yeah, right.  Hey, Mike, go look at piper1 and see what
kind of a mess we have".  Mike goes off and comes back, gives me a
weird look, and says "He's right, he's done".  Sort of, we didn't have
tty's yet so vi didn't work, we didn't have a kmem driver so ps didn't
work (which was *really* annoying), etc.  But awk worked, find worked,
ls worked, all that stuff worked.

My boss says "get out of here, let me think about this".

I come back in the next day, go to my boss (Bob Palm if any of you
know him, great guy) and he says "You can go home, we'll just pay
you".  Turns out that Lachman had budgeted for 6 months to do the
/usr/src/cmd port and it didn't look good to have me sitting around
doing nothing.

I, being the nerd that I am, said "Do you mind if I stick around if
I'm doing work?"  Bob says "Go for it, you can do whatever you want
if you look busy".

And there began the most awesome 6 months of my life.  I wrote
my own version of ps and a /dev/ps driver that was a dumbed down
version of /dev/kmem, because I was too clueless to write a kmem
driver.  People used that ps for a long time until someone did a 
real kmem driver.

I wrote the Unix side of the disk driver, which sounds hard but 
wasn't, this thing had I/O channels that had their own processor
so it was more like writing a http client or something, just in 
the kernel.  The real driver was in the I/O channel, all I had to
do was learn how to talk to the I/O channel.  And it was a polling
driver, no interrupts, there was some hardware glitch with interrupts
or something, whatever the reason, I just polled so it was easy.
Shitty perf but easy.

I ported all of the Lachman STREAMS TCP stack.  If I recall correctly
shorts weren't shorts, they were u32.  So all the 

	unsigned short	port;


	unsigned short	port:16;

I remember the stack being the biggest job, there were some things
that turned out to be tricky, long forgotten.  Oh, I bet anything
a lot of it was the networking drivers.  I know some of it was 
me banging on stuff but I think there were some driver issues as
well, I didn't work on those, I'm not much of a device driver person.

After all this I got sent to Japan with 3 source tapes, the base system
that included all of /usr/src/cmd and everyone else's stuff that had 
sort of been approved for integration, a version of the tree with big
pages, and the version of the tree that had the networking stack in it.

I was sent to the Tokyo Institute of Technology (TIT) and I was the techy
guy, they sent me with another Sun 3/280 and two Sun 3/50 (screw that
apollo crud) and told me to set up a dev environment and merge those
source trees.  So of course the server was installed as "bigtit" and
the 3/50's as "lefttit" and "righttit" which lasted until the Japanese
folks figured out what those meant.

I was there for 3 months, doing the merge wasn't easy and then other
problems cropped, again with the drivers if I remember correctly.
So the folks back in St Paul were sending me stuff, I was merging it,
building, installing, testing, reporting back what didn't work, and
that went on for quite a while.  Eventually it worked and home I 
went.  Lost a bunch of weight because I didn't like sushi at the 
time and there weren't a lot of good alternatives that kept my
weight up.  Fun times.

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